Stem cells which are found almost all multi-cellular organisms are characterized by the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiating into a diverse range of specialized cell types. Stem cells can develop into any cell type. The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blast cysts, and adult stem cells that are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.
In recent years, stem cells have become a key study area for researchers as they have the unique ability to turn into a range of other specialized cells, and therefore could be used to replace cells lost or damaged by disease and injury. Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, are routinely used in medical therapies.
And now the stem cells can help in the production of female egg cell or ovum and can help the females who are desperate to give birth, to over come with the problem of infertility. Stem cells from human ovaries have been extracted and they are made to generate egg cells. Women are born with a complement of egg cells that must last throughout life. The ability to isolate stem cells from which eggs could be cultivated would help not only with fertility but also with biologists’ understanding of how drugs and nutrition affect the egg cells.
For the better part of the last 50 or 60 years, the young girls at birth were given a bank account of eggs at birth that’s not renewable. As they become mature and become a woman, they use those eggs up and the ovaries will fail when they enter menopause but now the isolated egg-producing stem cells in human ovaries has been found and it can be coaxed to be developed into an oocytes, as eggs are called. The oocyte stem cells have been pin pointed by using antibodies which latched onto a protein “handle” located on the side of these cells. However the viability of the eggs has to be confirmed and not much is known about the hormones or mechanisms by which oocytes emerge from the stem cells.