Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the retro peritoneum the healthy balance of our body’s chemistry is due in large part to the work of two organs, the kidneys. These bean-shaped organs get rid of waste products and extra water (as urine). Apart from getting rid of the body’s waste kidneys carry the vital function of making chemicals called as hormones that help you to make red blood cells, build strong bones, and keep your blood pressure under control.
When kidneys fail, waste products that are harmful to your body build up and make you feel sick. This is known as kidney or renal failure and it can be either acute or chronic. End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is used when you have begun dialysis therapy, need a kidney transplant, or have received a transplant. The common symptoms of kidney failure include swelling in the hands, feet and face, itchiness, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, problems in sleeping, extreme fatigue, high blood pressure and nausea. Kidney disease progresses in stages and the stages of kidneys failure are determined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is a measurement of kidney function.
The treatments of kidney include Hemodialysis which is the process of removing toxins and excess fluid from the blood and tissues through a filter. The filter, known as a dialyzer or artificial kidney, is used with an artificial kidney machine. The amount of blood circulating through the artificial kidney at any given time is less than a cup. Hemodialysis is generally performed three times a week for 3 to 4 1/2 hours. Nocturnal hemodialysis is a form of dialysis that is done at night for an average of eight hours while you sleep. Like hemodialysis, it can be performed in a dialysis facility by nurses and trained technicians, or if you qualify, can be performed at home. This modality is called Nocturnal Home Hemodialysis. Dialysis done in the night helps in improving low weight and blood pressure. It helps in improving the health of the individual as well as the survival rate of the patients.
Besides that, peritoneal dialysis (PD) is another way and it is based on the same filtering process as hemodialysis. But instead of using an artificial kidney as the filter, the peritoneal membrane is used. Lastly, transplantation is another solution for renal failure and it is the implanting of a healthy kidney into a patient. The patient’s own kidneys are usually left in, but in some cases they might be removed before transplantation.